Thursday, August 27, 2020

Kathak and Social Communication Essay Example for Free

Kathak and Social Communication Essay Sociology and Communication ‘Kathak’ is one of the most well known types of Indian traditional move. We have grown up watching it in motion pictures from UmraoJaanuptoDevdas. Most little youngsters in India even beginning gaining kathak directly from the youthful age of 5 years. Anyway is kathak only a basic social result of the nation that can be considered as a real part of the masterful fortunes of this land or is there a bigger comprehension to the equivalent? Through this article we will go through the excursion of time and perceive how a thing as basic and unadulterated as an antiquated move structure can disclose to us the tales of the social, strict, political changes of the nation. The Fifth Veda Generally the Hindu society was partitioned in five varnas †Brahmins (educated people), Kshatriya (warriors), vaishya (traders), shudra (unskilled workers), achoot (untouchables). The reason for this type of division was to have an increasingly sorted out society by appropriating it on premise of the kind of work performed. Anyway with time this turned into a progressive division of the general public which prompted mistreatment of the lower position (shudra untouchables) by the upper rank individuals. In this whole battle for power the heavenly hindu sacred texts (the Vedas) stayed as the sole ownership of the Brahmins or the informed class. Any endeavor to try and contact these blessed messages by individuals from the lower rank was viewed as a wrongdoing. Indeed, even our sacred content of Ramayana portrays an occurrence where ruler Ram (mariyadapurushottam) slashes of the leader of an individual from the lower position when he endeavors to peruse the Vedas. The shudraâ€℠¢s were illegal to tune in to these puranas (heavenly messages). (Massey, 1999) It’s accepted that seeing this condition of the general public divine beings asked Lord Brahma to devise something which would be available to all and tie this general public together. This is the means by which the fifth veda or Natya Veda was conceived. The Hindu legends have accounts of brahma instructing Bharata (the then ruler of Bharat what we know as India) the Natya Veda and later his 100 children turned into the specialists of music, move and show. The Bharat NatyaShashtra has been differently dated from second century BC to third century AD. This Veda was regular for all segments of society and all sexual orientations. Stories and educating were told through move. This is the place we saw the introduction of Kathak as a move structure. Kathak Kathak is gotten from the root word Katha which implies story. Kathak as a move structure was utilized to describe stories for the most part legendary stories principally for the capacity of instructing individuals. This was the main structure wherein individuals all things considered and sexes could share their learning. This move structure was spread far and wide through abhinayawhich meaning ‘a conveying to the spectators’. This type of move contained different components:(Massey, 1999) Kathak Abhinaya Notion and Mood Unadulterated Dance Emotional Element Vachik: verse, tune, recitation, music and musicality Aharya: ensemble, make-up, gems Satvik: physical indication of mental and passionate states Angik: signals of the body Nritya Nritta Natya Position Politics The Hindu position separate that Kathak attempted to break down in the long run took another type of masteries. The Brahmins considered this to be as lost their incomparability and force; henceforth they acquired another point to the equivalent. As indicated by the Brahmins since move was only another type of revering god they had the preeminent state in these issues. The social human studies of Kathak artists in history is subsequently exceptionally interesting as it got likened to the clerical standing and even the kathak masters in the northern belt of india spoke to the Brahmin status.(Booth, 2005) The Brahmins not just isolated this type of move from its center reason for restricting individuals across different positions yet additionally hit the sex edge by getting the idea of devdasi . These were ladies who were committed to move and sing just for god. These ladies were neither permitted to wed, nor have any type of physical connections. In this manner the force match was dominated by the Brahmins by playing their cards of standing and sex legislative issues. Sex Politics Customarily Kathak was intended to be a stage open to all. It defamiliarises the standard sexual and social experience of ladies and men as individuals. Indian folklore additionally uncovers different stories epitomizing sexual orientation uncertainty, bisexuality, sex changes, male pregnancy, and erotica through a portion of the allegorical talks identified with divine beings, goddesses, brilliant fairies, and evil presences, just as sages, monks and yogis. There have been incalculable instances of rising above sexual orientation in kathak. Men dressed like ladies and performed. The idea of sexual orientation in the Natya Veda is exceptionally unpredictable. It accepts that sexual orientation is past our physical being, it is associated with our spirit and spirits yearn for the acknowledgment moksha which must be accomplished when one can get liberated from the shackles of real presence. According to the Tantric way of thinking the Supreme Being is conceptualized as one complex sex, includes both male and female (on the privilege and left side individually). So as to achieve salvation one must have the option to rise above these shackles of one’s sex.(Shah, 1998) Even in the Pre-Vedic writing Shiva is known as ardhanarishwara, which means containing the polarities of both male and female power as Shiva-Shakti. Move is a significant methods by which social belief systems of sex distinction are repeated. Through development jargon, costuming, self-perception, preparing, and method, talks of move are frequently established in thoughts of common sexual orientation distinction However as time passed Kathak additionally went under the domain of the political round of sex and it’s got named with the tag of being a move structure just for the females. Indeed, even the narratives described through kathak like the tales of master Krishna have adjusted. Prior it was accepted that Radha was Krihna’shladini Shakti and not quite the same as him, subsequently the move was acted in a semi-roundabout way where a similar artist played the jobs of both Krishna and Radha. Be that as it may, presently these jobs are performed by various actors.(Chatterjee, 1996) CHANGING DIMENSIONS OF WOMEN The introduction of Kathak occurred with the Benarasgharana of kathak which was then controlled by the Rajputs. This move structure at that point headed out to Jaipur building up the Jaipur gharana of kathak. Despite the fact that both these structures were exceptionally ruled by females they despite everything had an extraordinary regard as far as a craft of recounting accounts of god and teaching others on the forces of truth , uprightness and so on. Anyway when the Mughal’s attacking our nation and the marriage of JodhaBai and Akbar occurred two refined combined. The Mughals got artists from Persia and caught ladies structure india and got them prepared in kathak. It’s from this time onwards that Kathak got marked as the mistresses move what we today call as tawa’if or prostitutes.(Massey, 1999) The ensembles changed and the new gharana of Kathak was conceived which is today the most renowned one †Luckhnowgharana. The dressed transformed from the ghaghra (like a long skirt) to chudidar. The dresses were more tight at the bust and introduced the ladies as an explicitly alluring item. A ton of progress occurred in the fundamental hand developments and introduction if the move and a move that used to recount to the romantic tale of Krishna and Radha at one time turned into a move structure with developments intended to tempt men. In the entire force battle and standing governmental issues it was the ladies who endured the most and were vigorously misused. DURING THE COLONIAL INDIA During the British pioneer rule move turned into a device of defiance and political obstruction. It exhibited solidarity and force. The moving women’s position changed from ‘pure and pious’ to ‘fallen and sinful’ and consequently either casualties or perpetuators of the fiendishness of move. Ladies were urged to show their magnificence, vitality, aptitude, erotic nature and alluring quality in move. Hence for the dread of sparing there young ladies from the being looked on as an object of want move turned into a prohibited action for citizenry particularly the upper position. This mentality exists even today, as we don’t see numerous young ladies from the high society of society taking up moving. Anyway these outlooks are evolving gradually.(Reed, 1998) Master and SHISHYA According to Natyashashtra an acharya or instructor ought to have a characteristic information on vocal and instrumental music, move, mood and development. He should additionally have creative mind, knowledge, innovative staff, memory, sharpness and ability to shape the instructed. The shishyas, or the instructed, then again ought to be canny, retentive, thankful, gave, energetic and must want to exceed expectations. This type of educating has been proceeded after some time anyway the quintessence of the connection has got lost with the loss of the unadulterated and devout status of move. Social SYMBOL Today Kathak has been ascribed with different new implications on the worldwide stage like * Traditional legacy of India * Carrier of Indian culture * Indianness * Recounting the critical past Today kathak has become a social item that gets sold in type of a couple of move shows and exhibitions anyway it has lost its unique reason and ethos(Royo, 2004) KATHAK AND MOVIES Kathak has consistently been utilized as a significant apparatus in film. In 1955 exemplary, JhanakJhanakpayalBaje by V. Shantaram the film’s legend, Ghirdar goes after masterful incomparability in Kathak move against another artist Ram Prasad. Ghirdar’s triumph is guaranteed during the last arrangement of musical efficient turns or chakkras which he performs richly, anyway his rival is left all discombobulated. Ghirdhar here is from Varanasi, the origin of kathak and a definitive hindu city and his adversary is from Agra the Mughal capital which is related with t

Saturday, August 22, 2020

15 Types of Documents

15 Types of Documents 15 Types of Documents 15 Types of Documents By Mark Nichol Numerous terms exist that recognize one type of documentation from another. Here are a few words for explicit archives, with clarifications of their capacities just as extra meanings of the terms. 1. Security: an understanding made official by an installment of cash if the understanding isn't regarded; additionally, a glue, limiting, or joining component, power, or object, or, as an action word, to make such an impact 2. Endorsement: a record bearing witness to that something is valid or somebody is qualified, or demonstrating obligation or proprietorship, or, as an action word, to affirm 3. Sanction: a composed agreement or instrument, or award or assurance, that characterizes conditions, benefits, or rights, or a rent of all or part of a vessel, or, as an action word, to give such an understanding, or to offer available 4. Smaller: an understanding (related however not indistinguishable from conservative, which means â€Å"dense†) 5. Constitution: a composed instrument itemizing a political or social entity’s rules and the privileges of its residents or individuals, the laws or standards of such a substance, or any custom or law; additionally, the arrangement or foundation of something 6. Agreement: a record itemizing an understanding, regularly enforceable by law, between individuals or parties, or the understanding itself, or, as an action word, to go into an understanding; likewise, in criminal language, a plan to kill somebody 7. Contract: an archive recording a conventional authoritative understanding, or the understanding itself, or an activity to cure penetrate of such an understanding, or, as an action word, to settle on such an understanding 8. Confirmation: as a rule alludes to a record of a degree earned from an instructive organization, in spite of the fact that it additionally applies once in a while all in all to an archive giving a respect or benefit or to an official report 9. Assurance: a composed or expressed understanding about having or utilizing something or about the life span or nature of an item, or the operator of, for example, understanding, or, as an action word, to give such an understanding 10. Surety: equivalent with ensure, yet in addition a consent to be answerable for installment of an obligation or execution of an obligation, or a vow (see beneath), or, as an action word, to give such an understanding 11. Permit: a record or other thing that is proof of the conceding of a permit, or the position to take part in an action, or task of a few or all rights by a patent or copyright holder to another, or, as an action word to give such a report; additionally, wandering from creative structures or guidelines and, for the most part, opportunity or authorization to act, or, explicitly, untrustworthily or with negligence for gauges (in the last detects, likewise alluded to as lustfulness) 12. Visa: a record approving the carrier to go into and out of sovereign countries, or, as an action word to send or take things through a nation; likewise, by and large, approval or authorization to travel, or, allegorically, something that empowers accomplishment of an objective 13. Vow: a coupling guarantee to do or not accomplish something, or an agreement for execution of a demonstration or security of an obligation, or the security itself, or, as an action word, to consent to such a guarantee or agreement 14. Guarantee: equal with assurance or vow, or sureness, certainty, or the establishment of certainty or security 15. Warrant: a report doling out power to do or act, or, as an action word, to guarantee, proclaim, or ensure Need to improve your English in a short time a day? Get a membership and begin getting our composing tips and activities day by day! Continue learning! Peruse the Vocabulary class, check our well known posts, or pick a related post below:20 Great Similes from Literature to Inspire YouGrammar Quiz #21: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive ClausesHow to Style Titles of Print and Online Publications

Business Decision Making Essays

Business Decision Making Essays Business Decision Making Essay Business Decision Making Essay The business investigate process furnishes a guide with bearings for leading a business explore venture. There are three stages in the exploration procedure. They are the definition, execution and scientific stages. Stage 1: Formulation stage includes characterizing the substance and procedure of the exploration. To Develop: Theory, Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Study Design/Method. Model: Assume an extravagance maker came and looked for help from my organization which gives business meeting administrations. He was stressed over how to section the flow market.I would structure the exploration goals as per the Maslows pecking order of necessities hypothesis, eg. What number of individuals are there experiencing this region? their pay level. their occupation, etc. I would accept that individuals of certain salary level would be enthusiasm for extravagance merchandise to show their status. The exploration will be planned particularly made for this extravagance organization. Stage 2: Execution stage analyst is effectively assembling data from the proper sources. This data is then checked for mistakes, coded, and put away in a way that permits it to be broke down rapidly and conveniently.Example: After the structure of research is finished, I would send it to the advertising staff to actualize the examination, check the blunders. At that point I would change the examination inquiries into surveys, post them on the web or appropriate them to specific zones. After individuals completed the surveys, I would assemble all the data, check for mistakes, coded them into SPSS, and examined directly on the SPSS program. Stage 3: Analytical stage information are broke down. Theories are tried and either (an) upheld, or (b) not bolstered, in view of contrasting the real investigation result and the result anticipated in the plan stage.Results are inspected to give answers to the key research questions. The leader at that point take activities dependent on better informati on on the circumstance. Model: when the information have been investigated, I would test if the theories are bolstered or not upheld. At that point make the end. (b) Recent business patterns have influenced business investigate from numerous points of view. They have helped shape the kinds of research played out, the manner in which research is led and the marvels that are considered, just as the significance of research in business choice making.Among the more significant patterns affecting business investigate are global research, relationship showcasing and data transformation. Worldwide research. Firms the world over now perform business research to improve their dynamic. This exploration impacts choices regularly including new societies. Internationalization implies business investigate likewise should take a universal core interest. Troublesome administrative choices including customers and workers in an outside culture are made significantly increasingly troublesome by a vari ety of correspondence boundaries, both verbal and nonverbal.These choices require investigate with respect to social contrasts including the capacity to decipher importance from one language into a similar importance in another dialect. The web implies numerous organizations currently consider the world their market. Likewise, translational identicalness which implies that content can be made an interpretation of starting with one language then onto the next and afterward back to the first language with no bending in importance, gets basic. Relationship advertising Relationship showcasing underscores long haul associations between a business and its stakeholders.The development of relationship promoting is changing examination as far as who and what is contemplated. A primary part of relationship promoting is the acknowledgment a firm can't be everything to everyone. Something else, restricted assets will be spent on unrewarding clients. Fruitful organizations have faithful clients, steadfast workers and steadfast partners. Relationship showcasing has set an expanded accentuation on the investigation of reliability related elements. Representative devotion issues, for example, turnover and authoritative responsibility have been concentrated regularly as a result of their relationship to firm performance.Turnover speaks to the normal residency of a worker and recommends a substitution rate expected to look after creation. Authoritative duty is how much a worker relates to the objectives and estimations of a firm. Data upset The data age has encouraged many research forms. Mechanical advances in processing and electronic stockpiling have significantly expanded research effectiveness. Electronic interchanges, for example, messages, has supplanted the phone and conventional ‘snail-mail’ for some kinds of business correspondences, including numerous issues straightforwardly identified with research.Networking permits more noteworthy correspondence and information move between invested individuals. Organization data is presently put away and recorded in an electronic configuration, these electronic information distribution centers supplant other all the more expensive ways to deal with putting away information. Electronic information warehousing plainly has changed the manner in which investigators and chiefs carry out their responsibilities. Further, various industry insights are currently accessible electronically. Inspired by the minimal effort of electronically putting away data and a craving to all the more likely comprehend different connections, numerous associations have created formal frameworks planned for recording exceptionally significant occasions in a database.The coming about database is an electronic portrayal of hierarchical memory. Hierarchical learning can be characterized as the disguise of both outer and inner data to be utilized as a contribution to dynamic. One generally new association learning device is i nformation mining. Information mining electronically digs information product houses for data that distinguishes approaches to improve authoritative execution. Business explore even stretches out past the earth. Numerous organizations are assembling and dissecting data got from Global Positioning Satellite devices.GPS permits constant following of development. Specialists can expected and ready to be more gainful than they were an age back. Question 2 (a) The graphical strategy of numerous line is embraced to show the quantity of occupation opening detailed in NSW, Victoria and Australia from 1998/99 to 2009/10. It is clear and simple to recognize the patterns among three places and make examinations by utilizing the line outline. We can see from the line diagram that the quantity of occupation opening is more noteworthy than the quantity of Victoria through all the periods.We can see an upward pattern in every one of the three spots. From 1998/99 to 1999/00, the activity opportunit ies drop somewhat in Victoria while the quantity of NSW went down significantly from 20,000 to roughly 10,000. Occupation opportunities in Victoria were on the ascent from 1999/00 to 2008/09. Be that as it may, simultaneously, the quantity of NSW varied inside the scope of 20,000 to 40,000. In 2007/08, the activity opening crested at 40,000, trailed by an emotional fall. The general pattern of employment opening announced in Australia was like NSW. It bottomed at 37,000 out of 1999/00 and topped at 116,000 of every 2007/08. (b)The graphical procedures of grouped bar outline is embraced to show the level of income by three business fragments, worldwide aircraft activities, residential carrier tasks and auxiliary tasks, from 2004 to 2010. By utilizing bunched bar graph, the rate in each section become apparent, besides, it is anything but difficult to make examinations. The income by worldwide carrier activities represented the biggest extent in all the years aside from 2010. The figu re crested in 2009 with over 60%. In 2010, the profit made by local carrier tasks surpassed the income of global aircraft operations.The income made by auxiliary activities changed in this period from 2004 to 2010. The graphical strategies of stacked bar outline is received to show the figures of income as per geographic region, Australia, UK and Europe, Japan, Southeast and Northeast, Asia, America and the pacific and different nations, from 2004 to 2010. By utilizing stacked bar outline, the measure of income in each section become clear, additionally, it is anything but difficult to make examinations among seven years. We can observer an upward pattern for the all out profit in seven regions. The profit made by Australia represented the biggest extent through all the years.Australia’s income figure topped in 2010 with increasingly 10000. Obviously the profit made by Australia were on the ascent from 2004 to 2010, while simultaneously, the various geographic territories sta yed steady. Question 3 Brief report for the Frank City Council Respondents sexual orientation FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Validmale2141. 242. 042. 0 female2956. 958. 0100. 0 Total5098. 0100. 0 MissingSystem12. 0 Total51100. 0 Of the example, a huge extent of the example is female (58%), while 42% of the example is male. Insights Age of respondent NValid50 Missing1Mean46. 78 Median45. 50 Mode35a Std. Deviation18. 074 Variance326. 665 Range78 Minimum21 Maximum99 Percentiles2531. 75 5045. 50 7560. 00 a. Numerous modes exist. The littlest worth is appeared In Frank City, there are three principle age bunches in the example with 23-25 years of age, 33-44 years of age and 57-65 years of age. Individuals of different ages are really even inside the range from 21 to 99 years of age. The base age is 21 years of age and the most extreme age is 99 years of age. The Average age is 46 years of age. Ethnicity of respondent FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Validw hite2549. 050. 050. 0 lack1733. 334. 084. 0 other815. 716. 0100. 0 Total5098. 0100. 0 MissingSystem12. 0 Total51100. 0 In the example, the majority of the individuals are white (half), 34% are dark, 16% are different ethnicities. White individuals represented the larges

Friday, August 21, 2020

From what frequent activity do you derive your greatest joy Why is Personal Statement

From what visit action do you determine your most noteworthy bliss Why is this movement significant to you, and how can it shape your point of view on life (500 words or less) - Personal Statement Example Competitors were the encapsulation of intensity for me and, obviously, I envisioned myself playing. I never missed Yankee games and calmly hung tight for the day I would go to the arena with my father. Be that as it may, it was not all I needed to do in my life. Growing up, I was turning out to be increasingly more inspired by the methodology of the game and baseball instructing appeared to be the best job I could have in my life. Everything changed whenever I had the chance to attempt myself as a mentor in eleventh grade. I began chipping in as a mentor at the 68th Precent youth baseball in Brooklyn, New York. I recall this involvement in a grin all over in light of the fact that it was so incredible to assist little children with succeeding. I was in excess of a mentor for those children; I attempted to be a good example for them and indicated that great deeds constantly took care of. A few kids in my group had unique needs and I felt extremely extraordinary helping them to support their accomplishments in sport and in life making them increasingly open for correspondence and new things. We imparted numerous uncommon minutes to the group; despite the fact that not every one of them were cheerful, there was a unique environment that encompassed our correspondence. Every one of those children helped me to remember myself; I encountered similar issues, felt gravely when I was unable to play well and was energiz ed when my group dominated the match. Generally speaking, I comprehended that baseball instructing was what I expected to do to be cheerful. This training experience discloses numerous things to me. I understand that numerous things in life are not tied in with winning. It is increasingly charming to be glad and offer satisfaction with others. Raised to be over-achievers, my age frequently endeavors to win under any conditions however at times triumph doesn't fulfill individuals. Triumph improves for quite a while, however this inclination vanishes and leaves nothing after it. With everything taken into account, I like baseball since it is in excess of a game where one should win. I treat this game as recollections about my

Global Perspective Essay Topics

Global Perspective Essay TopicsGlobal perspective essay topics should be chosen based on your perspective. If you are in the business of trying to grow your international business by using different marketing methods, then you may want to start considering a global perspective.There are several different types of global perspective essay topics that you can choose from. It will be necessary for you to consider what type of opportunity you are looking to get involved with and how to best present that opportunity through a global perspective essay topic.Many international business people do not realize the importance of a global perspective when they are writing a global perspective essay topic. Most of these people have a limited understanding of international business and they end up focusing on a singular market and neglecting the business opportunities that exist internationally.Today's world is such a complex and volatile place that the current global economy is not an indication of where the future of business lies. You may be interested in the global economy and want to apply yourself in that area, but if you really want to expand your horizons then you should begin developing a global perspective. This will allow you to take a look at global opportunities in a new light.Many people do not understand the importance of international business and do not realize that they are responsible for bringing a great deal of wealth into the global community. You can't expect to succeed in this area without taking the time to gain the knowledge and skills needed to effectively market international business.One of the things that you need to keep in mind when it comes to developing global perspective essay topics is that you should spend a considerable amount of time researching international businesses. The best way to do this is to read articles and news articles that focus on international businesses and to obtain as much information as possible. You may find that ce rtain areas of the world are not well-known to people outside of the area, so you may want to consider interviewing some of the business people in that region.Before you submit your global perspective essay topic, you may want to first decide exactly what you would like to write about and what you want to cover. You also need to consider what kind of competition you are going up against and what the best parts of the world to market internationally are.When you develop your own global perspective essay topics, you will be able to give your readers a complete picture of the world that you are looking to help promote and nurture. If you take some time to consider all of the options available to you, you will be able to find a unique angle on any topic that will make a unique international business opportunity stand out.

Friday, July 3, 2020

Parties and Pretrial Procedures - 825 Words

Parties and Pretrial Procedures (Essay Sample) Content: Parties and Pretrial Procedures Name Institution Parties and Pretrial Procedures The grand jury plays a significant role in the criminal procedure, but not the one that involves a finding of guilt or punishment of the defendant. Usually, prosecutors work with the grand jury to decide whether to issue criminal charges or an indictment against a potential defendant. It should be noted that this is usually reserved for serious felonies. Notably, the grand jury is one of the initial procedures in any criminal trial in the United States. The grand jury is often used rather than the prosecutor simply issuing a criminal charge since their proceedings are much more relaxed than the normal court proceedings. Also, it allows the prosecutor to explain the law to the jury and work with them to collect evidence and hear testimony. Additionally, grand juries serves to encourage witnesses to speak freely and without any fear of retaliation and to protect the potential defendant's reputation in case the jury does not reach an indictment decision. Moreover, the grand jury is cruc ial as it ensures that the prosecutor has enough evidence to issue a charge against a potential defendant in order to avoid futile proceedings (Branham, 2013). The grand jury may only issue an indictment for a crime (true bill) only if it finds, after considering the evidence presented, that there is a probable cause to believe that a crime was committed by a suspect. Moreover, since grand juries meet behind closed doors, their proceedings are usually cloaked in secrecy. At the beginning of each case, the prosecutor will give the grand jury a true bill containing all the criminal charges being levelled against the potential defendant (Branham, 2013). The prosecutor will then present witnesses and any other evidence to support the charges. After the presentation of all the evidence, the grand jury then determines if there is probable cause to support the charges. If the grand jury finds there is enough evidence to support the charges, they will issue a true bill indictment. On the other hand, if the grand jury finds there is no probable cause to support the charges, they will issue an indictment of no bill (Hall, 2012). Contrary to the regular juries, grand juries usually operate behind closed doors as aforementioned. This implies that the defendant and his or her attorney are not allowed to be present as only the prosecuting attorney and any subpoenaed witnesses are authorized to be in attendance during the proceedings. Unlike a petit jury, which resolves a specific criminal or civil case, a grand jury (typically containing twelve to twenty three members) serves as a group for a sustained period of time in all or many of the cases that arise in the jurisdiction. This is generally done under the supervision of a federal attorney, a county district attorney, or a state attorney general and hears the evidence without the potential defendant being involved in the proceedings. Even when summoned, the defendant or the attorney representing him or her may choose not to be present since witnesses are not cross-examined during the grand jury proceedings. Prosecutors and defense attorneys usually attempt to resolve a case prior to it being taken to the grand jury through the means of the 14th Amendment's due process, both procedural and substantive. The substantive due process seeks to safeguard those individual rights which do not have a specific textual basis in the Constitution alongside its Amendments. Alternatively, the procedural due process is a principle required by the Constitution that when the federal or state government act in such a way that denies a citizen of a life, property interest or liberty, the individual must first be given notice and the opportunity to be heard. Thus, it is the factors of the nature of the United States' due process that has influenced the development of the plea bargaining aspect within the criminal justice system (Hall, 2012). Plea bargains can be termed as agreements between the defense attorneys and the prosecutors where defendants agree to plead guilty to either part or all the charges agai nst them in exchange for conces...

Monday, May 25, 2020

What Is the Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory is a theory that attempts to explain socialization and its effect on the development of the self. There are many different theories that explain how people become socialized, including psychoanalytic theory, functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interaction theory. Social learning theory, like these others, looks at the individual learning process, the formation of self, and the influence of society in socializing individuals. The History of Social Learning Theory Social learning theory considers the formation of one’s identity to be a learned response to social stimuli. It emphasizes the societal context of socialization rather than the individual mind. This theory postulates that an individual’s identity is not the product of the unconscious (such as the belief of psychoanalytic theorists), but instead is the result of modeling oneself in response to the expectations of others. Behaviors and attitudes develop in response to reinforcement and encouragement from the people around us. While social learning theorists acknowledge that childhood experience is important, they also believe that the identity people acquire is formed more by the behaviors and attitudes of others. Social learning theory has its roots in psychology and was shaped greatly by psychologist Albert Bandura. Sociologists most often use social learning theory to understand crime and deviance. Social Learning Theory and Crime/Deviance According to social learning theory, people engage in crime because of their association with others who engage in crime. Their criminal behavior is reinforced and they learn beliefs that are favorable to crime. They essentially have criminal models that they associate with. As a consequence, these individuals come to view crime as something that is desirable, or at least justifiable in certain situations. Learning criminal or deviant behavior is the same as learning to engage in conforming behavior: it is done through association with or exposure to others. In fact, association with delinquent friends is the best predictor of delinquent behavior other than prior delinquency. Social learning theory postulates that there are three mechanisms by which individuals learn to engage in crime: differential reinforcement, beliefs, and modeling. Differential Reinforcement of Crime Differential reinforcement of crime means that individuals can teach others to engage in crime by reinforcing and punishing certain behaviors. Crime is more likely to occur when it 1. Is frequently reinforced and infrequently punished; 2. Results in large amounts of reinforcement (such as money, social approval, or pleasure) and little punishment; and 3. Is more likely to be reinforced than alternative behaviors. Studies show that individuals who are reinforced for their crime are more likely to engage in subsequent crime, especially when they are in situations similar to those that were previously reinforced. Beliefs Favorable to Crime On top of reinforcing criminal behavior, other individuals can also teach a person beliefs that are favorable to crime. Surveys and interviews with criminals suggest that beliefs favoring crime fall into three categories. First is the approval of certain minor forms of crime, such as gambling, â€Å"soft† drug use, and for adolescents, alcohol use and curfew violation. Second is the approval of or justification of certain forms of crime, including some serious crimes. These people believe that crime is generally wrong, but that some criminal acts are justifiable or even desirable in certain situations. For example, many people will say that fighting is wrong, however, that it is justified if the individual has been insulted or provoked. Third, some people hold certain general values that are more conducive to crime and make crime appear as a more attractive alternative to other behaviors. For example, individuals who have a large desire for excitement or thrills, those who hav e a disdain for hard work and a desire for quick and easy success, or those who wish to be seen as â€Å"tough† or â€Å"macho† might view crime in a more favorable light than others. The Imitation of Criminal Models Behavior is not only a product of beliefs and reinforcements or punishments that individuals receive. It is also a product of the behavior of those around us. Individuals often model or imitate the behavior of others, especially if it is someone that individual looks up to or admires. For example, an individual who witnesses someone they respect committing a crime, who is then reinforced for that crime, is then more likely to commit a crime themselves.